The Cardiovascular diseases affecting the developed world have at their core atherosclerosis and hypertension, both of which are profoundly affected by diet and can be approached, at least in part, from a nutritional point of view, as can the increasing “epidemic” of obesity. Diet is a multi-component mixture of many nutrients, which may interact with one another. The definitive study of nutrients and their impact on cardiovascular disease can be a daunting enterprise. Many dietary risk factors contribute to these diseases in various environmental and ethnic settings. These risk factors are often in evidence in youth so that preventive measures must be initiated early in life.